Your face is gonna freeze like that (Part 3)…….(aka: How many Steves?)

The mental manipulations that we described in Part 1 are actually a form of psychological priming. Priming occurs when the way in which a person responds to an event (stimulus) is influenced by a previous stimulus. Perhaps most intriguing is the fact that much of this influence takes place outside of our conscious awareness. In part 2,  we presented our working hypothesis that priming may work with dogs; specifically priming dogs to feel happy and relaxed will enhance learning during touch-then-treat training.

So, can a dog’s emotional responses and behaviors be primed? Like most people who live with and love dogs, my intuitive response is “Of course they can“! But, intuitions aside, if we are being good canine scientists, how might we collect actual data that will either support or refute this hypothesis?

Suppose that our friend Terry decides to test the theory on her dog Steve.

single Border Collie


The Steve Study:  Terry sets up a study protocol of daily training sessions with Steve. In each session, Steve is primed  using a favorite food treat. Terry decides to use 10 repetitions of reinforcing eye contact, something Steve readily and regularly offers, as her priming stimulus. She follows this portion of the session with a series of touch-then-treat exercises in which Steve’s front paws, mouth, and ears are each handled gently (see below). Terry repeats the entire routine once per day for a period of three weeks.

Touching Ear Touching feet Touching teeth

Data Collected: For each training session, Terry rates Steve’s response to the three types of handling (ears, paws, mouth) using a five-point rating scale that ranges from “does not accept at all” (score of 1) to “accepts completely” (score of 5). This type of scale, called a “Likert scale” is commonly used in studies that rate subjective experiences. Terry scores Steve’s responses before the experiment begins (pre-test) and daily (after each session) until the end of the study. Here are Steve’s mean (average) weekly scores, before and after testing, for each handling exercise:





















Results and conclusions: Steve’s scores show that he was quite tolerant of having his ears handled at the start of the study (mean score 4.1), but that he did not tolerate handling of his paws (mean score 1.4) or of his mouth (mean score 2.1) at the start of Terry’s study. All three areas showed improvement over the 3-week training period. Steve completely accepted Terry’s handling of his ears and paws and showed a great deal of improvement in allowing Terry to work with his mouth by the end of the three-week study. Terry concluded that “priming is an effective training tool that leads to  improvement in a dog’s acceptance of handling exercises

Is Terry justified in this conclusion? Does Steve’s response tell you if priming enhanced classical conditioning (touch-then-treat training) in dogs? In a word, NOPE.

There are several problems with using a Steve Study (or a Muffin study, or a Rover study or a Cooper study). Some of these may be immediately obvious to you; others perhaps less so. Here are four reasons that Steve’s response (though very nice for Steve and Terry) should not be used to make conclusions about our hypothesis:

1. Confounding factors: Several other factors may have influenced Steve’s behavior. The passage of time alone (especially in an adolescent dog) may have caused him to more readily accept handling. Second, Steve may have started to tolerate handling regardless of any type of training intervention, simply in response to the daily scheduled interactions with Terry. Third, his response may have been due to touch-then-treat alone, regardless of priming. These uncontrolled factors are why all studies need to include a control group.

2. Experimenter bias: Terry was not blinded to the treatment and had expectations that it would be effective. This leads to a common cognitive error called confirmation bias; more about this in a later blog). In this case Terry’s bias is also caused by a placebo effect and would lead her to err on the side of seeing improvement in a subjective measure where it may not have existed.

3. Steve ain’t stable: No, this is not a derogatory statement about Steve. What I mean is that Steve, like all biological creatures, varies in his day-to-day behaviors. That variation, which occurs both within an animal and between animals, must be accounted for when trying to determine if an animal is actually responding to a treatment or if the results that we are seeing are purely by chance and are caused by normal day-to-day fluctuations. In this case, fluctuations in behavior or learning, but this applies to all biological processes.

4. One Steve = Anecdote (not a study): Last but not least, the fact that Steve varies day-to-day in his behavior is further complicated by the fact that ALL dogs vary from one another (we all know this, of course). In this particular case, we would expect that all dogs vary in the degree to which they respond to priming (if priming works). The trick with research is….here is the punch line……separating the normal variation that occurs within and among dogs from the variation that may be caused by our treatment (in this case, priming) is why we need to study groups of dogs and why we always need one or more of those groups to be a control group This is also the reason that we need statistics – to keep us from making incorrect conclusions that occur because Steve just happens to be an unusually smart dog (which of course, he is), because of normal differences among dogs, or because Steve just happens to be having a good day.

So, instead of just testing our hypothesis on just Steve, we actually need to test it on a sample of the population (i.e. multiple Steves):

many BCs

MULTIPLE STEVES (sample size: n = 10)

OOPS! WAIT you say! These are all Border Collies! Don’t we need a sample that is representative of all dogs in the population? Yep – we sure do……



This looks a bit better. Let’s test our hypothesis on a study group, a sample that of dogs that is representative of the population of dogs that we would like to make conclusions about. Let’s start with the group of happy fellows above, but keep adding until we have about 75 young adult dogs available for our study. What are the treatment and control groups that are needed for this study? To thoroughly control this study, we need three groups:

Treatment (Experimental) Group: Also called the “test group”, this is the group of dogs that receive the experimental treatment; in this case this is a series of Priming + Touch-then-Treat training (25 dogs or n = 25).

Positive Control: Positive control groups are used when we need a control that is expected to have a positive result, allowing the researcher to show that the protocol was  capable of producing results. In our study, this would be a group of dogs who are not primed, but are trained to accept handling using Touch-then-Treat only. (n = 25)

Negative Control: Negative control groups are used to make  sure that no confounding variables affect results and to factor in any likely sources of  bias. A negative control can also be a way of setting a baseline. No training. (n = 25)

Study Protocol: Dogs are randomly assigned to one of the three groups. (We might also “block” dogs across treatments, which matches dogs by sex, age, breed or other sources of variance that we want to control; more about this in another blog). We use the same study protocol, with one exception. The person who scores each dog after their daily training (or no training session) with Terry, is not Terry. Rather, we will use a scorer who is “blinded” to the study treatments and is present only to score each dog’s response to handling, with no knowledge of the treatment.

In the final part of this series, we will look at data from the Multiple Steves study and what conclusions we might make from our hypothetical study. For now though, you may be asking……WHY IS THIS APPROACH IMPORTANT? Well, let me tell you…….gotta first climb…..

Up on my Soapbox…..


        Testing new ideas using the scientific method protects us from making Steve Study mistakes. Sure, you may see improvements in your dog’s coat, vitality, agility performance, or health when you switch him from a cooked to a raw diet, when you decide to go grain-free, when you train him to balance his front feet on a ball, or when you use the ointment for his ear infection that Joe next door (who knows a lot about dogs) concocted and gave to you. However, without adequate study that includes groups of subjects, control groups and (gasp!) statistical analysis, you cannot know if something that has not yet been studied is actually doing what you think it is doing. While not infallible, the scientific method  is constructed to prevent or minimize bias, to test sample groups that represent a population, and to prevent us from coming to conclusions based only upon our biases, our intuitions and our dear beloved, and very smart dog, Steve.

to be continued[1]

11 thoughts on “Your face is gonna freeze like that (Part 3)…….(aka: How many Steves?)

  1. I’m sure that Steve in a “very smart dog” but I do get bewildered on ‘doggy sites and lists’ as to just how common “very bright dogs” are! 🙂

    “How can ths be! ” (quote: Julius Sumner Miller)


  2. Pingback: Weltweites Wissen am Wochenende – Wie Tiere lernen – Klassische Konditionierung | Chakanyuka

  3. Okay, I’ll read. Will those resources help me understand how to measure, “the emotional states of dogs”? Forgive me if I seem hard-headed, but I haven’t found anything measurable other than behavior.


    • Even in science there are other ways of collecting evidence other than direct measurement of objective data. One frequently used argument for the existence of animal emotions and consciousness is the Argument from Analogy. In a nutshell, this is the philosopher’s equivalent of “Looks like a duck, quacks like a duck…”, and posits that if we accept that the behavioral signs of, let’s say joy, or extreme sadness, or pain, in a human are taken to be indicative of that person having an underlying internal experience of those emotions similar to what we experience ourselves (we do after all, each have access to our own, and only our own internal subjective experience), then there is no reason to believe that, given the evidence of evolution, genetics, behavioral sciences, that at least some animal species, probably most mammals, experience similar internal states. (And please do not try the “but humans can speak and tell others what they feel” argument, since many humans cannot speak and I doubt you would be willing to say that a mute human does not experience emotions). The argument from analogy is so strong that it flips the onus onto the deniers of animal emotion to prove that they do NOT experience emotion, rather than the latter. This is just one of the many arguments you will find in the books that I suggested, all of which are written by researchers in a wide variety of fields and not all of which are even about animals, but rather are about the role of emotions in cognition. If you are still so married to the idea that animals do not experience emotions, I would suggest you do a search on “animal emotions” and “animal consciousness” for further reading – there is an enormous body of knowledge and study available to you if you are interested. Linda Case


      • And, of course Linda, what people TELL us that they are experiencing might simply not be the case. Often people describe what they feel they SHOULD be experiencing.

        I’ve always maintained that the problem with Humans is that we ‘anthropmorphise’ ourselves, instead of looking for our ‘real motivations and emotions’.

        The terms used to describe our ’emotions’ are really just a short-hand way of saying what we feel and why.

        in reality the reason why one dog attacks abnother that has just been petted by a favourite person, is no different to why a child hits another child who had just been made a fuss of by a favourite person.

        For some strange reason we are allowed to say, that Little Alice hit Little Johnny because she was jealous, but not to say that Cuddles attacked Fluffy because she was jealous.


  4. I’m having a hard time reconciling the use of the term, “emotional” in your posts with your stated goal of using science to explain canine behavior. It’s that pesky word, “emotion”–a word that people take for granted and without definition that sticks in my craw.

    You use the E word frequently. For example, in your first post, you state, “…as dog trainers, we manipulate dogs both physically and emotionally when we train them and modify their behaviors.” What exactly is emotional manipulation? What objective criteria do you employ to label one response as emotion and another not emotional? How can you describe an emotional state in objective language before and after you manipulate the emotional state?

    You say, “…we train them and modify their behaviors.” How do you distinguish between training and behavior modification? If you, “train them and modify their behaviors”, then what part of training is *not* behavior modification? And if it’s not behavior modification, then how do you measure the training???

    In your second “Face Freeze” post, you state, “Most trainers are intimately aware of and concerned with the emotional states of our dogs.” Sounds reasonable. But…what is an, “emotional state”? You can observe specific behaviors that you may choose to increase, or decrease, but what the heck do you mean by emotional?

    When my dog balks at loose-lead walking in favor of pulling to smell something, how do I deduce his emotional state? Is he being capricious? Is he pissed-off? I may be able to deduce that I need higher-value rewards and a denser schedule of reinforcement. Meanwhile, I’d pay a pretty penny If you can tell me what my dog’s emotional state happens to be, then I’ll .

    I can observe, for example, a relaxed commisure, rigid or relaxed posture, the position of ears, tail, etc. I can predict that certain behaviors follow certain signals–play will follow a play bow and attack or retreat will likely follow an instance of whale eye. But can you tell me what tangle of emotions a subject feels?

    Finally, you ask, “…can a dog’s emotional responses and behaviors be primed?” What exactly is an, “emotional response”? What is an, “emotional behavior”? How do you distinguish between an “emotional response” and one that is affectless?

    I could enjoy your posts but IMHO, you stray from your goal of discussing canine behavior using the principles of science. Don’t stop: your writing is decent. But if you fancy yourself a science writer, please stick to what others can repeat and observe. You do not demonstrate any objective criteria by which “emotion” can be measured.


    • Harry, Actually, many scientists today and in the past study emotions in humans and non-human animals, including dogs. Emotions are now known to be an essential component of decision-making, judgment, and memory in humans, and probably have similar roles in non-human animals. It is no longer considered to be an anthropomorphic error, as you imply, for a scientist to discuss emotions in other animals. For some good reading on the topic see: Kahneman’s “Thinking, Fast and Slow”, Frans De Waal’s “Good Natured: The origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals”, Jonathan Balcolmbe’s “Pleasurable Kingdom”, Marc Hauser’s “Moral Minds” and “Wild Minds”, David Engleman’s “Incognito”, and Vilmos Csani’s “If Dogs Could Talk”. Oh, and of course we must not forget Charles Darwin’s “The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals”. Linda Case


      • Absolutely. Emotions are real, and are a valid subject for scientific discussion.

        It is just that we should try to avoid leting our own emotions affect our scintific understanding/research.

        I would include Konrad Lorenz’s work here too — especially my favourite “The Year of the Greylag Goose” (make sure you get the illustrated version).

        As well as Bekoff’s writings on “Psychology Today” and his published books.


    • If the physical attributes of mammals evolved to become more and more complex, then it is not unreasonable to believe that self-awareness, “emotion”, play, and other cognitive functions also evolved. Evolution doesn’t make a quantum leap in physical traits, why should we think it did so with human primates? Some traits are just more objectively measurable than others. (Those who are tempted to attack me for saying “if” – don’t bother. Its an if-then statement, that’s all).


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